Emperor Paul I of Russia through his absolute powers as autocrat created an entirely new Order based on an ancient foundation. The Order remains, to this day, under the Imperial protection of the Romanov dynasty.

1798 to 1801Emperor Paul I
1803Emperor Alexander I
1867Emperor Alexander II
to 1917Emporor Nicholas II
1934 to 1936Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich of Russia
Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich of Russia
1977 to 1981
Grand Duke Andrew Romanov
1981 to 1989
HH Prince Vasili of Russia
1989 to 2008
HH Prince Michael of Russia
2008 to 2014 (unofficial)HH Prince Nicholas Romanovich Romanov
2014 to Present
HH Prince Rostislav Rostislavovich of Russia